Scopri I quattro libri di Confucio di Tomassini, F., Tomassini, F.: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon I quattro libri di Confucio, Libro. [44] These efforts spread Confucian ideals to students who then became officials in many of the royal courts in China, thereby giving Confucianism the first wide-scale test of its dogma. The last holder of the title, Kung Te-cheng of the 77th generation, was appointed Sacrificial Official to Confucius. [56] A few of Confucius's disciples went on to attain official positions of some importance, some of which were arranged by Confucius. [53], Confucius's favorite disciple was Yan Hui, most probably one of the most impoverished of them all. Confucio { proper, noun masculine } Chinese philosopher. There are many books in the world that can improve our knowledge. Confucius is widely considered as one of the most important and influential individuals in human history. In other temples, Confucius is represented by a memorial tablet. Confucius (/ k ən ˈ f j uː ʃ ə s / kən-FEW-shəs; Chinese: 孔夫子; pinyin: Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; 551–479 BC) was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period who was traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages.. [51], Confucius began teaching after he turned 30, and taught more than 3,000 students in his life, about 70 of whom were considered outstanding. Diventa Un Ciclista Piu in Forma E Piu V [ePUB], Scarica Libri Attacchi Di Panico. It makes the reader is easy to know the meaning of the contentof this book. 27 talking about this. [28] When Confucius heard of the raid, he requested that Viscount Ji Huan allow the duke and his court to retreat to a stronghold on his palace grounds. Confucius believed that if a ruler is to lead correctly, by action, that orders would be unnecessary in that others will follow the proper actions of their ruler. confucio traduzione nel dizionario italiano - malayalam a Glosbe, dizionario online, gratuitamente. [11][12][13][14] Traditional accounts of Confucius's life relate that Kong He's grandfather had migrated the family from Song to Lu. One of his sons, Kong Lingjie 孔令傑 married Debra Paget[86] who gave birth to Gregory Kung (孔德基). There are many books in the world that can improve our knowledge. This book gives the readers many references and knowledge that bring positive influence in the future. Just as action according to lǐ should be adapted to conform to the aspiration of adhering to yì, so yì is linked to the core value of rén (仁).Rén consists of five basic virtues: seriousness, generosity, sincerity, diligence and kindness. [50], In modern times, Asteroid 7853, "Confucius", was named after the Chinese thinker. As Mohism lost support by the time of the Han, the main philosophical contenders were Legalism, which Confucian thought somewhat absorbed, the teachings of Laozi, whose focus on more spiritual ideas kept it from direct conflict with Confucianism, and the new Buddhist religion, which gained acceptance during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. [22] Eventually, he rose to the position of Minister of Crime. Schriftsteller: ISBN: 9444296373234: Libro digitale : may retrieve this ebook, i have downloads as a pdf, kindle dx, word, txt, ppt, rar and zip. Search. [30] Immediately after the revolt was defeated, the Ji family razed the Bi city walls to the ground. "It's not just a scientific question. Le frasi di Confucio, Mondo. His teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument, and ethical ideals and methods are conveyed indirectly, through allusion, innuendo, and even tautology. This realignment in Confucian thought was parallel to the development of Legalism, which saw filial piety as self-interest and not a useful tool for a ruler to create an effective state. After being naturalized as a Korean citizen, he changed the hanja of his name from "昭" to "紹" (both pronounced so in Korean),[78] married a Korean woman and bore a son (Gong Yeo (Korean: 공여; Hanja: 孔帤), 1329–1397), therefore establishing the Changwon Gong clan (Korean: 창원 공씨; Hanja: 昌原 孔氏), whose ancestral seat was located in Changwon, South Gyeongsang Province. Confucius serves not as an all-powerful deity or a universally true set of abstract principles, but rather the ultimate model for others. The Han dynasty Records of the Grand Historian records that it had already become a place of pilgrimage for ministers. [20] Under the duke were three aristocratic families, whose heads bore the title of viscount and held hereditary positions in the Lu bureaucracy. [88] Of these, several tens of thousands live outside of China. Lesen Sie „Massime di saggezza“ von Confucio erhältlich bei Rakuten Kobo. [54], Confucius did not charge any tuition, and only requested a symbolic gift of a bundle of dried meat from any prospective student. [34] He left the state of Lu without resigning, remaining in self-exile and unable to return as long as Viscount Ji Huan was alive.[33]. Per mantenersi, insegnava, raccogliendo attorno a sè molti ragazzi. His teachings require examination and context to be understood. Confucian ethics may, therefore, be considered a type of virtue ethics. [23], Soon thereafter, Gongshan Furao (also known as Gongshan Buniu), a retainer of the Ji family, revolted and took control of the forces at Bi. Confucius obţinute în dicţionarul română - italiană la Glosbe, dicţionar online, gratis. Many of those countries still hold the traditional memorial ceremony every year. While not a national holiday, it does appear on all printed calendars, much as Father's Day or Christmas Day do in the Western world. Schreiber: ISBN: 7292993500649: Libro digitale : be able to take this ebook, i supply downloads as a pdf, kindledx, word, txt, ppt, rar and zip. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity. Confucio. An invitation to come back to Qufu was extended to the southern Duke Yansheng Kong Zhu by the Yuan-dynasty Emperor Kublai Khan. attrezzature alla correzione colore [Kindle], Scarica Libri Puntare Sugli Immobili A Reddito: Guida completa per In the 20th century, this tradition was interrupted for several decades in mainland China, where the official stance of the Communist Party and the State was that Confucius and Confucianism represented reactionary feudalist beliefs which held that the subservience of the people to the aristocracy is a part of the natural order. Talvolta, specialmente nei trattati più datati, l'opera è presentata come Analecta di Confucio, sebbene la … E’ vero che nella giornata ci sono tanti obblighi da assolvere, ma è altret-tanto vero che se una cosa ci interessa davvero, il tempo lo troviamo. Carvings often depict his legendary meeting with Laozi. For these reasons, according to many commentators, Confucius's teachings may be considered a Chinese example of humanism. [Download] Il Programma Di Allenamento Di Forza Co... Download La vendetta: I casi del commissario Lambe... Download Il Codice della Strega: Romanzo Fantasy [... Download Volevo essere una gatta morta [ePUB]. This website is available with pay and free online books. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang first bestowed the title of "Duke Wenxuan" on Kong Suizhi of the 35th generation. [98] Bryan Sykes, professor of genetics at Oxford University, understands this decision: "The Confucius family tree has an enormous cultural significance," he said. Burdened by the loss of both his son and his favorite disciples, he died at the age of 71 or 72. The first known effort was by Michele Ruggieri, who returned to Italy in 1588 and carried on his translations while residing in Salerno. [10] His ancestry traced back through the dukes of Song to the Shang dynasty which had preceded the Zhou. Western name of Kong Qiu (孔丘), an influential Chinese philosopher who lived 551 BCE – 479 BCE. [90] Many of the Muslim Confucius descendants are descended from the marriage of Ma Jiaga (馬甲尕), a Muslim woman, and Kong Yanrong (孔彥嶸), 59th generation descendant of Confucius in the year 1480 and are found among the Hui and Dongxiang peoples. Confucius's works are studied by scholars in many other Asian countries, particularly those in the Chinese cultural sphere, such as Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Confucius's descendants were repeatedly identified and honored by successive imperial governments with titles of nobility and official posts. A disagreement between these two political philosophies came to a head in 223 BC when the Qin state conquered all of China. [73][74] The Hanlin Academy rank of Wujing boshi 五經博士 was awarded to the southern branch at Quzhou by a Ming Emperor while the northern branch at Qufu held the title Duke Yansheng. [15], Kong He died when Confucius was three years old, and Confucius was raised by his mother Yan Zhengzai (顏徵在) in poverty. Soon after, the duke neglected to send to Confucius a portion of the sacrificial meat that was his due according to custom, and Confucius seized upon this pretext to leave both his post and the Lu state. The Shiji stated that the neighboring Qi state was worried that Lu was becoming too powerful while Confucius was involved in the government of the Lu state. [Libri gratis] Storia di chi fugge e di chi resta ... [Download] Vargo Marian: il cinico e l'acqua santa... [Libri gratis] Dirty 10 racconti sporchi [PDF]. La vita e l'insegnamento, li bri Confucio. [39] Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others, most often translated as "benevolence" or "humaneness"; translator Arthur Waley calls it "Goodness" (with a capital G), and other translations that have been put forth include "authoritativeness" and "selflessness." He puts the greatest emphasis on the importance of study, and it is the Chinese character for study (學) that opens the text. [22], Confucius desired to return the authority of the state to the duke by dismantling the fortifications of the city—strongholds belonging to the three families. Since that time there have been many portraits of Confucius as the ideal philosopher. Come Uscirne: La Potenza Della Terapia Cognitivo Comportamentale, vendita libri on line Attacchi Di Panico... comprare libri online Le Smanie Per La Villeggiatura, sconti libri Le Smanie Per La Villeggiatura, libri più belli Le Smanie Per La Villeggi... [Libri gratis] Un'amabile storia d'amore [ePUB]. [91][92][93][94] The new genealogy includes the Muslims. [16] His mother would later die at less than 40 years of age. One of them is the book entitled I dialoghi di Confucio By author. He argued for representing truth in language, and honesty was of paramount importance. I dialoghi di Confucio. [Download] L'assassinio del Commendatore. In Encyclopedia, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 04:28. [75][76] The leader of the southern branch is 孔祥楷 Kong Xiangkai.[77]. Sima Qian recorded the names of 77 disciples in his collective biography, while Kongzi Jiayu, another early source, records 76, not completely overlapping. Confucio. Confucius looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, particularly those with political power, to model themselves on earlier examples. [26][27], During the revolt by Gongshan, Zhong You had managed to keep the duke and the three viscounts together at the court. However, Confucius is said to have believed in astrology, saying: "Heaven sends down its good or evil symbols and wise men act accordingly".[38]. La filosofia di Confucio era così potente da dominare per secoli la vita intellettuale nell'antica Cina. [8][9] The area was notionally controlled by the kings of Zhou but effectively independent under the local lords of Lu, who ruled from the nearby city of Qufu. [97] The aim of the genetic test was the help members of collateral branches in China who lost their genealogical records to prove their descent. incredddibbbbbilisssss!!!! These would be rulers devoted to their people, striving for personal and social perfection, and such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior with laws and rules. Because of the huge interest in the Confucius family tree, there was a project in China to test the DNA of known family members of the collateral branches in mainland China. Vendita online libri I dialoghi di Confucio, nuovi libri mondadori I dialoghi di Confucio, libri mammut I dialoghi di Confucio. The father-to-son family tree, now in its 83rd generation,[87] has been recorded since the death of Confucius. According to this account, Qi decided to sabotage Lu's reforms by sending 100 good horses and 80 beautiful dancing girls to the duke of Lu. The title was taken away from the southern branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation,[72] so the northern branch of the family kept the title of Duke Yansheng. Chinese philosopher. Then download it. [84]Famous descendants include actors such as Gong Yoo (real name Gong Ji-cheol (공지철)) & Gong Hyo-jin (공효진); and artists such as male idol group B1A4 member Gongchan (real name Gong Chan-sik (공찬식)), singer-songwriter Minzy (real name Gong Min-ji (공민지)), as well as her great-aunt traditional folk dancer Gong Ok-jin (공옥진). The two sources together yield the names of 96 disciples. Li Si, Prime Minister of the Qin dynasty, convinced Qin Shi Huang to abandon the Confucians' recommendation of awarding fiefs akin to the Zhou Dynasty before them which he saw as being against to the Legalist idea of centralizing the state around the ruler. Il saggio rispetta tutti ma soprattutto se stesso. There are many books in the world that can improve our knowledge. At the courts of these states, he expounded his political beliefs but did not see them implemented. [101][102] Women are now included for the first time. [26] However, Dubs (1946) is of the view that Gongshan was encouraged by Viscount Ji Huan to invade the Lu capital in an attempt to avoid dismantling the Bi fortified walls. 831) (Italian Edition) eBook: Scarpari, Maurizio: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop Zum Hauptinhalt wechseln.de Hallo, Anmelden. PDF Formatted 8.5 x all pages,EPub Reformatted especially for book readers, Mobi For Kindle which was converted from the EPub file, Word, The original source document. Kǒng and his given name was 丘, OC:*‍[k]ʷʰə, mod. The South Wall Frieze in the courtroom of the Supreme Court of the United States depicts Confucius as a teacher of harmony, learning, and virtue.[61]. costruire un sistema di investimenti immobiliar [TEXT], [Download] Costruttori dell'Uomo, Costruttori di Dio: La Storia che non Theexpression in this word brews the readership suspect to learn and read this book again and later. So, reading thisbook entitled Free Download I dialoghi di Confucio By author does not need mush time. [23] Although the Meng and Shu families unsuccessfully besieged Hou, a loyalist official rose up with the people of Hou and forced Hou Fan to flee to the Qi state. While pursuing one's own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if one's life was based upon following a path designed to enhance the greater good. [23] First, the Shu family led an army towards their city Hou and tore down its walls in 498 BC. [58] Even though the Ji family had practices with which Confucius disagreed and disapproved, they nonetheless gave Confucius's disciples many opportunities for employment. It is still a major destination for cultural tourism, and many people visit his grave and the surrounding temples. [21] The Ji family held the position "Minister over the Masses", who was also the "Prime Minister"; the Meng family held the position "Minister of Works"; and the Shu family held the position "Minister of War". [56], Yang Hu, who was a subordinate of the Ji family, had dominated the Lu government from 505 to 502 and even attempted a coup, which narrowly failed. [29] The rebels were pursued and defeated at Gu. He died from natural causes. [18], Confucius was born into the class of shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. [6] Confucius's clan name was 孔, OC:*‍kʰˤoŋʔ, mod. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Find items in libraries near you. How to get thisbook? I Dialoghi (Lun Yü) scritti tra il V e il III secolo A.C. (ma la redazione attuale è del II secolo d.C.) sono tutt’oggi opera che grandemente influenza la cultura cinese e dell’Asia orientale. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do unto others what you do not want done to yourself", the Golden Rule. After Confucius's resignation, he began a long journey or set of journeys around the principality states of north-east and central China including Wey, Song, Zheng, Cao, Chu, Qi, Chen, and Cai (and a failed attempt to go to Jin). Under Wudi, the works of Confucius were made the official imperial philosophy and required reading for civil service examinations in 140 BC which was continued nearly unbroken until the end of the 19th century. Questo celebre testo di Confucio andrebbe interpretato proprio come il suo significato letterale cinese, ovvero 'discussione sulle parole'. Le massime di Confucio sono famose. Cauta cuvinte şi fraze milioane în toate limbile. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. In Sinic cultures, there are many temples where representations of the Buddha, Laozi, and Confucius are found together. Confucius's teachings were later turned into an elaborate set of rules and practices by his numerous disciples and followers, who organized his teachings into the Analects. Confucius believed in ruling by example, if you lead correctly, orders by force or punishment are not necessary.[41]. illustrata [TEXT], [Libri gratis] Il sistema periodico [PDF]. Spedizione con corriere a solo 1 euro. easy, you simply Klick I dialoghi di Confucio story download connection on this piece while you will intended to the costless submission constitute after the free registration you will be able to download the book in 4 format. Terapia Cognitivo Comportamentale [TEXT], [Download] Le Smanie Per La Villeggiatura [PDF]. [101][102] It was unveiled in a ceremony at Qufu on September 24, 2009. It was believed by some that lǐ originated from the heavens, but Confucius stressed the development of lǐ through the actions of sage leaders in human history. [99] The main branch of the family which fled to Taiwan was never involved in the proposed DNA test at all. Confucius's descendants in Quzhou alone number 30,000. Konto und Listen Anmelden Konto und Listen Warenrücksendungen und Bestellungen. This book really gives you good thought that will very influence for the readers future. [36] The original tomb erected there in memory of Confucius on the bank of the Sishui River had the shape of an axe. There have been two film adaptations of Confucius' life: Confucius (1940) starring Tang Huaiqiu, and Confucius (2010) starring Chow Yun-fat. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Confucianism developed into a system known in the West as Neo-Confucianism, and later New Confucianism (Modern Neo-Confucianism). If the descent were truly unbroken, father-to-son, since Confucius's lifetime, the males in the family would all have the same Y chromosome as their direct male ancestor, with slight mutations due to the passage of time. Western name of Kong Qiu (孔丘), an influential Chinese philosopher who lived 551 BCE – 479 BCE. For example, the properly generous person gives the right amount—not too much and not too little.[39]. The clan then received an aristocratic rank during the succeeding Joseon Dynasty. Two of Confucius's most famous later followers emphasized radically different aspects of his teachings. Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and a team of Jesuits—Prospero Intorcetta, Philippe Couplet, and two others—published a translation of several Confucian works and an overview of Chinese history in Paris in 1687. Of procedure yes. [56] In fact, the disciple Zilu even died defending his ruler in Wey. [56] As a likely consequence, it was after this that the first disciples of Confucius were appointed to government positions. I suoi scritti sono stati trasmessi come aforismi, ognuno dei quali si è concentrato sull'insegnamento della filosofia, dell'etica o della società. [23] This way, he could establish a centralized government. Prime Einkaufswagen. One of them is the book entitled I dialoghi di Confucio By author. They were honored with the rank of a marquis 35 times since Gaozu of the Han dynasty, and they were promoted to the rank of duke 42 times from the Tang dynasty to the Qing dynasty. [16] At age 19 he married Qiguan (亓官), and a year later the couple had their first child, their son Kong Li (孔鯉). di tutti i generi, gli scritti, pur se molto spesso faticosamente comprensibili di tutto ciò che, viene riportato in quel sito. There are so many people have been read this book. This demanded that the subordinates must advise their superiors if the superiors are considered to be taking a course of action that is wrong. His father Kong He (or Shuliang He) was an elderly commandant of the local Lu garrison. [25] Whatever the situation may have been, Gongshan was considered an upright man who continued to defend the state of Lu, even after he was forced to flee. Degli scritti di Confucio è stato fatto un estratto molto scarno e molto discutibile, sia come scelta (alcuni aforismi sono davvero poco interessanti), sia come sistemazione: sono stati raccolti per presunto argomento, a dispetto del loro ordine originario. He expressed fears that the masses lacked the intellect to make decisions for themselves, and that, in his view, since not everyone is created equal, not everyone has a right of self-government. One of his teachings was a variant of the Golden Rule, sometimes called the "Silver Rule" owing to its negative form: Often overlooked in Confucian ethics are the virtues to the self: sincerity and the cultivation of knowledge. [100], The fifth and most recent edition of the Confucius genealogy was printed by the CGCC. You can download the soft file of this book in this website. [6][7], It is thought that Confucius was born on September 28, 551 BC,[1][8] in Zou (鄒, in modern Shandong province). Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers I Dialoghi (論語 T, 论语 S Lún Yǔ P), sono una raccolta di pensieri e di frammenti di dialoghi del pensatore e filosofo cinese Confucio e dei suoi discepoli. Probabilmente è vero che Confucio si servì di testi scritti più antichi e che non scrisse nulla personalmente; è certo che non nutriva l'intenzione di fondare una filosofia nuova e ancora meno una nuova religione. Su Liber Liber potete scaricare gratuitamente i Dialoghi di Confucio:https://www.liberliber.it/online/autori/autori-c/confucius/i-dialoghi-di-confucio/ Confucius asserts that virtue is a mean between extremes. [33] According to accounts in the Zuozhuan and Shiji, Confucius departed his homeland in 497 BC after his support for the failed attempt of dismantling the fortified city walls of the powerful Ji, Meng, and Shu families. [Confucius. Under the succeeding Han and Tang dynasties, Confucian ideas gained even more widespread prominence. Dialoghi (Italian Edition) eBook: Confucio, Alberto Castellani: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop. Getting this book is simple and easy. I Dialoghi (Lun Yü) scritti tra il V e il III secolo A.C. (ma la redazione attuale è del II secolo d.C.) sono tutt’oggi opera che grandemente Page 4/9 . Far from trying to build a systematic or formalist theory, he wanted his disciples to master and internalize older classics, so that their deep thought and thorough study would allow them to relate the moral problems of the present to past political events (as recorded in the Annals) or the past expressions of commoners' feelings and noblemen's reflections (as in the poems of the Book of Odes). [16] Qiguan and Confucius would later have two daughters together, one of whom is thought to have died as a child. This online book is made in simple word. One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. Confucius was disappointed and resolved to leave Lu and seek better opportunities, yet to leave at once would expose the misbehavior of the duke and therefore bring public humiliation to the ruler Confucius was serving. [54] Sima Niu, in contrast to Yan Hui, was from a hereditary noble family hailing from the Song state. [21] By then, Confucius had built up a considerable reputation through his teachings, while the families came to see the value of proper conduct and righteousness, so they could achieve loyalty to a legitimate government. [23] Eventually, after a year and a half, Confucius and his disciples succeeded in convincing the Shu family to raze the walls of Hou, the Ji family in razing the walls of Bi, and the Meng family in razing the walls of Cheng. As it is now considered a veneration of Chinese history and tradition, even Communist Party members may be found in attendance. Guarda le traduzioni di ‘Confucio’ in Tamil. [TEXT]. Western name of Kong Qiu (孔丘), an influential Chinese philosopher who lived 551 BCE – 479 BCE. Ediz. Acquistalo su libreriauniversitaria.it! According to his disciple Zigong, his master treated students like doctors treated patients and did not turn anybody away. The southern branch remained in Quzhou where they live to this day. Scarica Libri I GUARDIANI DEGLI INFERI: RISVEGLIO ... Scarica Libri La strega è mobile: Trixie Pepperdin... Scarica Libri Scimmiette di Mare Project: Kill You... [Libri gratis] Manuale del Videomaker A-Z: dalla scelta delle In Taiwan, where the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) strongly promoted Confucian beliefs in ethics and behavior, the tradition of the memorial ceremony of Confucius (祭孔) is supported by the government and has continued without interruption. Plan it unfortunately you fancy! [29], Later in 498 BC, Duke Ding personally went with an army to lay siege to Cheng in an attempt to raze its walls to the ground, but he did not succeed. Confucius (/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs; Chinese: 孔夫子; pinyin: Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; 551–479 BC)[1][2] was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period who was traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages. Is that this ebook persuade the clients possible? [42][43] Confucius's disciples and his only grandson, Zisi, continued his philosophical school after his death. In time, their writings, together with the Analects and other core texts came to constitute the philosophical corpus of Confucianism. Both Confucian ideas and Confucian-trained officials were relied upon in the Ming Dynasty and even the Yuan Dynasty, although Kublai Khan distrusted handing over provincial control to them. A descendant of Confucius, H. H. Kung was the Premier of the Republic of China. Confucius's political thought is based upon his ethical thought. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of the shame, and moreover will become good." (Translated by James Legge) in the Great Learning (大學). PDF Formatted 8.5 x all pages,EPub Reformatted especially for book readers, Mobi For Kindle which was converted from the EPub file, Word, The original source document. [95] Kong Dejun (孔德軍) is a prominent Islamic scholar and Arabist from Qinghai province and a 77th generation descendant of Confucius. The picture was painted on the wooden frame to a polished bronze mirror.[60]. acquisto libri on line I dialoghi di Confucio, siti per comprare libri I dialoghi di Confucio, recensioni di libri I dialoghi di Confucio. Alcuni dicono che risalga ai tempi di Confucio. [56] Even though Confucius denounced them for their practices, the aristocracy was likely attracted to the idea of having trustworthy officials who were studied in morals as the circumstances of the time made it desirable. In Confucianism, the concept of li is closely related to yì (義), which is based upon the idea of reciprocity. Venne persino considerata una religione, e ci sono ancora templi dove Confucio è adorato come il Dio della Cultura. In former times, it was customary to have a portrait in Confucius Temples; however, during the reign of Hongwu Emperor (Taizu) of the Ming dynasty, it was decided that the only proper portrait of Confucius should be in the temple in his home town, Qufu in Shandong. [54] Under Confucius's teachings, the disciples became well-learned in the principles and methods of government. Stretta è la foglia, larga è la via, mettit "m piac" alla pagina mia. [45][46] François Noël, after failing to persuade Clement XI that Chinese veneration of ancestors and Confucius did not constitute idolatry, completed the Confucian canon at Prague in 1711, with more scholarly treatments of the other works and the first translation of the collected works of Mencius.