They were generally republics and formally independent, though most of them originated from territories once formally belonging to the Byzantine Empire (the main exceptions being Genoa and Pisa). Una storia, organica, documentata, aggiornata alle ultime scoperte, non solo delle navi mercantili e militari che la formavano, ma … On 6 October 1406 Pisa became a possession of Florence, which thus realized its long-held goal of access to the sea. La Repubblica Marinara di Venezia, detta la Serenissima, raggiunge il suo prestigio grazie alla produzione e al commercio del sale. Basing its prosperity on maritime trade, Ragusa became the major power of the southern Adriatic and came to rival the Republic of Venice. Testa a testa finale per il secondo posto tra Genova e Amalfi con i padroni di casa dietro di poco. The maritime republics formed autonomous republican governments, an expression of the merchant class that constituted the backbone of their power. The fortunes of the town increased considerably when it joined the First Crusade: its participation brought great privileges for the Genoese colonists, which moved to many places in the Holy Land. The Crusades offered opportunities for expansion. 697-1797 Cronology in subtitles. The Pisan archbishop was granted primacy over Sardinia, in addition to Corsica. These events showed the superiority of the new great naval and military Ottoman power in the eastern Mediterranean and forced the two Italian maritime republics to seek a new destiny. In 1073 Robert Guiscard conquered the city, taking the title Dux Amalfitanorum ("Duke of the Amalfitans"). Daibert became the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem and crowned Godfrey of Bouillon first Christian King of Jerusalem. The flight of the Genoese and of the baron Philip of Montfort, ruler of the Christian principality of Syria, concluded the first phase of the punitive expedition. HOTEL REPUBBLICA MARINARA Via Matteucci, 81 PISA Tel: +39 050 3870100 - Fax: +39 050 3870200 Email: info@hotelrm.it Aretè Srl - 01960260501 During the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) its fleet was decisive in the acquisition of the islands and the most commercially important seaside towns of the Byzantine Empire. To oppose the Ottomans, Venice and Genoa put aside their differences in the 16th century to join the Holy League created by Pius V. Venice, Genoa, Noli, and Ragusa had very long lives, with an independence that outlasted the medieval period and continued up to the threshold of the contemporary era, when the Italian and European states were devastated by the Napoleonic Wars. At the beginning of the 13th century, the city reached the peak of its power, dominating the commercial traffic in the Mediterranean and with the Orient. Several Adriatic ports were under Venetian rule, but Ancona and Ragusa retained their independence. Between 1494 and 1509, during the siege of Pisa by Florence, Venice went to rescue of the Pisans, following a policy of safeguarding Italian territory from foreign intervention. venezia. The Genoese replied with new alliances. To begin with, these two maritime republics, close to one another on the Tyrrhenian Sea, collaborated as allies against the threat of Arab expansion. La Repubblica Marinara di Venezia ebbe forte espansione anch esulla terraferma, diventando al più estesa delle repubbliche marinare e fu il regno più potente del Nord Italia. For centuries Ragusa was an ally of Ancona, Venice's other rival in the Adriatic. The maritime republics over the centuries, War of Saint Sabas and the conflict of 1293–99, Land battles and gathering in the Holy League. La Repubblica di Venezia. Conflict between the two Republics reached a violent crisis in the struggle at Saint-Jean d'Acre for ownership of the Saint Sabas monastery. The city passed between French and Austrian control over the next half-century, before briefly regaining its independence during the revolutions of 1848. This event aroused strong feelings that inspired Pope Nicholas V to plan a crusade. Venezia… l’antico fascino della Repubblica Marinara. Regate Repubbliche Marinare Venezia vince, Genova terza. Initially called Compagna Communis, the denomination of republic was made official in 1528 on the initiative of Admiral Andrea Doria. La Repubblica marinara di Venezia. I veneti, espulsi dagli ostrogoti e dai longobardi, si rifugiarono nelle paludi della foce del Po e fondarono Venezia. They also had an essential role in the Crusades. The expression "maritime republics" refers to the Italian city-states, that since the Middle Ages enjoyed, thanks to its maritime activities, political autonomy and economic prosperity. In realtà la Repubblica si fondava su una formidabile flotta, 36 mila marinai in oltre tremila navi, 16 mila uomini occupati nell’Arsenale. LE REPUBBLICHE MARINARE: VENEZIA. Genoa, also known as La Superba ("the Superb one"), began to gain autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire around the 11th century, becoming a city-state with a republican constitution, and participating in the First Crusades. Around the 1110s, Pope Paschal II asked Pisans and Genoese to organize a crusade in the western Mediterranean. Using gold coins, the merchants of the Italian maritime republics began to develop new foreign exchange transactions and accounting. The Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204, originally intended to liberate Jerusalem, actually entailed the Venetian conquest of Zara and Constantinople. Le sue origini risalgono al V secolo quando, per sfuggire alle invasioni barbariche, gli abitanti di Aquileia e altre città del Veneto cercarono rifugio nella laguna. On 13 October 1180 the Doge of Venice and a representative of the Pisan consuls signed an agreement for the reciprocal non-interference in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian affairs, and in 1206 Pisa and Venice concluded a treaty in which they reaffirmed the respective zones of influence. In art, Ancona was one of the centers of so-called Adriatic Renaissance, that particular kind of renaissance that spread between Dalmatia, Venice and the Marches, characterized by a rediscovery of classical art and a certain continuity with Gothic art. From the 11th century, it emerged as a maritime and mercantile city, especially in the Adriatic. The alliance with Pisa allowed the liberation of the western sector of the Mediterranean from Saracen pirates, with the reconquest of Corsica, the Balearics and Provence. The maritime republics (Italian: repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. Si rassegnarono al dilagare della potenza turca e al rafforzamento degli Stati nazionali europei, firmando trattati e chiudendosi sempre più nell’area veneta. Situato nel cuore di Venezia, a soli 2 minuti a piedi dalla fermata del vaporetto Rialto Mercato sul Canal Grande, Le Repubbliche Marinare Guest House offre sistemazioni con … As a sign of gratitude, the pope granted many privileges to the two republics. Genoa was guaranteed the right to trade in the eastern imperial lands, a new and profitable market. Seconda Amalfi e ultima Pisa. The warehouses of the Republic of Ancona were continuously active in Constantinople, Alexandria and other Byzantine ports, while the sorting of goods imported by land (especially textiles and spices)[2] fell to the merchants of Lucca and Florence. QUESTA È UNA RACCOLTA DI NOTIZIE E FATTI STORICI, ADATTA PER RICERCHE SCOLASTICHE E PER ARRICCHIRE IL PROPRIO BAGAGLIO CULTURALE. Le isole della laguna veneziana conobbero un sostanzioso aumento della popolazione a partire dal 5° sec., quando le genti della terraferma vi cercarono scampo dalle invasioni barbariche. Venetian rule lasted for one and a half centuries and determined the institutional structure of the future republic, with the emergence of the Senate in 1252 and the approval of the Ragusa Statute on 9 May 1272. Despite the setback, Pisa was able to continue its territorial expansion in Tuscany some decades afterwards, thanks to Guido da Montefeltro and Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. La sua crescita toccò il piano politico tanto quanto quello commerciale; al Doge furono presto affiancati due consigli, denominati consiglio maggiore e … Genoa replaced Venice in the monopoly of commerce with the Black Sea territories. In the summer of the same year, a massive fleet composed of two hundred galleys from Genoa and Pisa, with some from Gaeta, Salerno and Amalfi, set sail for the Mediterranean coast of Africa. YouTube. Its dominance in the eastern Mediterranean in later centuries was threatened by the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in those areas, despite the great naval victory in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 against the Turkish fleet, fought with the Holy League. [2] Amalfi and Gaeta, though, lost their independence very soon: the first in 1131 and the second in 1140, both having passed into the hands of the Normans. The treaty with Genoa was just the first of a series of commercial agreements. The relationship between Genoa and Venice was almost continuously competitive and hostile, both economically and militarily. Venezia uscirà dal Medioevo all'apogeo della sua potenza. Fazio Novello della Gherardesca, an enlightened aristocrat, improved relations with Florence, the Pope and Genoa. Venice, in contrast, soon ended its participation in the first crusade, probably because its interests lay mainly in balancing Pisan and Genoese influence in the Orient. However, Amalfi had no army of its own to protect its commercial interests. Ma la Repubblica, in questa fase di massima espansione, gettava anche le basi del proprio declino. venezia La quarta repubblica marinara fu Venezia, la più longeva. Pera in Constantinople, first Genoese and later (under the Ottomans) Venetian, was the largest and best known Italian trading base. These Italian mercantile centers also exerted significant political influence locally: the Italian merchants formed guild-like associations in their business centers, aiming to obtain legal, tax and customs privileges from foreign governments. To avoid succumbing to Venetian rule, these two republics made multiple and lasting alliances. The Venetian trade route went via Germany and Austria; Ancona and Ragusa developed an alternative route going west from Ragusa through Ancona to Florence and finally to Flanders. From 1282 to 1284 Genoa and Pisa reverted to fighting each other. Etichette: Giovanni Gambacorta took advantage of this to rise to power, but he secretly negotiated surrender with the besiegers. Rivalry between Pisa and Genoa grew worse in the 12th century and resulted in the naval Battle of Meloria (1284), which marked the beginning of Pisan decline; Pisa renounced all claim to Corsica and ceded part of Sardinia to Genoa in 1299. [8][9] Although somewhat confined by Venetian supremacy on the sea, Ancona was a notable maritime republic for its economic development and its preferential trade, particularly with the Byzantine Empire. Al centro della città, come adesso, c’era l’isola di Rialto, abitata da famiglie nobili; ma avevano importanza anche i commercianti e i marinai, che cominciavano ad arricchirsi. The Nicaean fleet and army conquered and occupied Constantinople, causing the collapse of the Latin Empire of Constantinople less than sixty years after its creation. Its social structure was rigid, and the lower classes played no part in its government, but it was advanced in other ways: in the 14th century the first pharmacy was opened there, followed by a hospice; in 1418 the trafficking of slaves was abolished. Meanwhile, Venice sided with Alfonso V of Aragon, who occupied the throne of Naples. Ragusa was the door to the Balkans and the East, a place of commerce in metals, salt, spices and cinnabar. In fact it was the Pisan army that broke the pact with Amalfi by attacking the coastal city on 4 August 1135 during the war waged by Pope Innocent II and the new emperor Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor (aided by the republics of Genoa and Pisa) against the Norman Roger II of Sicily, who controlled Amalfi. The papal concessions to the archbishop of Pisa greatly increased the fame of the Tuscan republic throughout the Mediterranean, but at the same time aroused Genoese envy, which soon developed into conflict. That is why Amalfian ships are not often reported to have been engaged in military action against other maritime republics. Navi con la bandiera di San Marco portavano materie prime a Costantinopoli, dove artigiani veneziani le lavoravano rivendendole con alti profitti; dall’Oriente si mandavano in Francia e in Fiandra stoffe e ornamenti; i fiorentini inviavano a Venezia stoffe di panno fine importando sete e oro, un traffico incessante, anche dopo quell’evento traumatico per Venezia che fu la scoperta dell’America. They were providing Crusaders with transport and support, but most especially took advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from the fighting. Un tempo quella di Venezia era una delle quattro Repubbliche marinare: le istituzioni del suo governo erano suddivise su più livelli, il più alto rappresentato dal Doge. Towards the end of the 11th century, the First Crusade in the Holy Land began on the initiative of Pope Urban II, supported by the speeches of Peter the Hermit. The war ended in favour of the Venetians with the Peace of Turin on 8 April 1381. Repubblica di Venezia: nel VI e VII sec., le popolazioni del Veneto, incalzate dalle invasioni barbariche, trovano rifugio nelle isole della laguna. The Pisan force remained in the Holy Land. Venice, Amalfi, Ancona,[2] and Ragusa were already engaged in trade with the Levant, but the phenomenon increased with the Crusades: thousands of Italians from the maritime republics poured into the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea, creating bases, ports and commercial establishments known as "colonies". The republic of Ancona enjoyed excellent relations with the Kingdom of Hungary and was an ally of the Republic of Ragusa. They fought open battles on more than one occasion. Venice conquered Ragusa in 1205 and held it until 1382 when Ragusa regained de facto freedom, paying tributes first to the Hungarians, and after the Battle of Mohács, to the Turks. forme istituzionali comunali e traevano la loro forza economica e politica dal dominio delle vie commerciali marittime. Relationships between Pisa and Venice were not always characterized by rivalry and antagonism. Towards the end of the 14th century, Cyprus was occupied by the Genoese and ruled by the signoria of Pietro II of Lusignano, while the smaller island of Tenedos, an important port of call on the Bosphorous and Black Sea route, was conceded by Andronikos IV Palaiologos to Genoa in place of the concession of his father John V Palaiologos to Venice. giuseppe parini: il risveglio del giovin signore. The conflict was named the War of Chioggia because the Venetians, after an initial success, were defeated in Pula by the Genoese, who occupied Chioggia and besieged Venice. 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Relationships between the maritime republics were governed by their commercial interests, and were often expressed as political or economic agreements aimed at shared profit from a trade route or mutual non-interference. A decisive naval battle occurred on 6 August 1284. Among them was the poet Rustichello da Pisa, who met Marco Polo (captured during the Battle of Curzola) and wrote down the adventures of the Venetian explorer. Peace was reached on 6 November 1175 with the return of the Holy Roman Emperor to Italy. The first known commercial contract goes back to 1148 and was signed with the city of Molfetta, but other cities came along in the following decades, including Pisa, Termoli and Naples. In 1119, the Genoese attacked some Pisan galleys, beginning a bloody war on sea and land. Quando Caterina Cornaro, regina di Cipro, nel 1489 succedette al marito Giacomo di Lusingano, donò la ricca e fertile isola alla Repubblica Serenissima che l’accolse con ogni onore proclamandola “Figlia prediletta di Venezia”. The expedition was very successful and freed the Balearic Islands from the Muslims. Austria occupied the Republic of Ragusa on 24 August 1798. Pisa had lost thousands of young men in the battle, causing a population collapse. Venice remained an ally of Byzantium in the fight against Arabs and Normans. To avoid the shame of arriving in Genoa in shackles, Dandolo committed suicide by smashing his head against the oar to which he was tied. Amalfitan merchants wrested the Mediterranean trade monopoly from the Arabs and founded mercantile bases in Southern Italy and the Middle East in the 10th century. Several personal dominions arose. The economic growth of Europe around the year 1000, together with the hazards of the mainland trading routes, made possible the development of major commercial routes along the Mediterranean coast. Its motto was Ancon dorica civitas fidei (Dorian Ancona, city of faith); its coin was the agontano. Troops from Ferrara and Bertinoro arrived to save the city and repelled the imperial troops and the Venetians in battle. Just one year later, the three maritime powers fought an uneven conflict in the waters facing Saint-Jean d'Acre. Esilio per i ribelli Se c’era qualche sommossa, popolo contro nobili oppure patrizi in cerca di potere individuale, i capi evitavano rappresaglie troppo dure. The growing independence acquired by some coastal cities gave them a leading role in this development. L'espressione repubbliche marinare è stata coniata dalla storiografia ottocentesca, quasi in coincidenza con la fine dell'ultima di esse: nessuno di questi Stati si è mai autodefinito repubblica marinara.Lo storico che introdusse l'espressione e mise a fuoco il concetto corrispondente fu lo svizzero Simondo Sismondi nel 1807, nell'opera Storia delle repubbliche italiane dei secoli di mezzo. That same victorious expedition persuaded Pope Urban II that a large crusade to liberate the Holy Land would be possible. Venice stands out from the rest in that it maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the mid-17th century. These were small gated enclaves within a city, often just a single street, where the laws of the Italian city were administered by a governor appointed from home, and there would be a church under home jurisdiction and shops with Italian styles of food. After a brief revival in 1814, the Republic was ultimately annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1815.[7]. Nei primi secoli, a partire dall’800, la storia di Venezia assomiglia a quella delle altre potenze marinare: ardimentosi viaggi verso l’Africa e l’Oriente, trattati con l’estero, istituzioni di basi commerciali dalle quali affluivano verso la laguna crescenti ricchezze. Genoa remained relatively powerful until the last major conflict with Venice, the War of Chioggia of 1379. This alliance enabled the two towns on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian bay", which would have given Venice direct or indirect control over all the Adriatic ports. Moreover, the Aragonese conquest of Sardinia, which began in 1324, deprived the Tuscan city of dominion over the Giudicati of Cagliari and Gallura. The fleet mounted a successful offensive against Mahdia on 6 August 1087. The Republic of Venice, also known as La Serenissima (The Most Serene), came into being in 421 as a result of the development of trade relations with the Byzantine Empire, of which it was once formally a part, albeit with a substantial degree of independence. Amalfi had already lost complete autonomy from the second half of the 11th century, although it continued running its commercial routes and enjoying a large degree of administrative autonomy, at least in this period. The best known among them were Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi; less known, but not always less important, are Ragusa (now Dubrovnik), Gaeta,[1] Ancona,[2] and the little[3] Republic of Noli.[4]. Around the middle 15th century, Genoa entered into a triple alliance with Florence and Milan, with Charles VII of France as its head. Pisa, at that time overlooking the sea at the mouth of the Arno, reached the pinnacle of its glory between the 12th and 13th centuries, when its ships controlled the Western Mediterranean. Quando, alla fine del ‘700, Napoleone con le sue conquiste mise fine alla millenaria Repubblica, Venezia aveva ormai da tempo esaurito il suo compito. Venice and Pisa entered the crusade almost simultaneously, and the two republics were soon in competition. Amalfi was sacked by Pisans in 1137, at a time when it was weakened by natural disasters (severe flooding) and was annexed to the Norman lands in southern Italy. Genoa sailed under the Spanish flag, as the Republic of Genoa lent all its ships to Philip II. The Venetians deployed numerous galleys and the galleon Totus Mundus in the port of Ancona, while imperial troops lay siege from the land. It succeeded until 1532, when it lost its independence after Pope Clement VII took possession of it by political means. The Genoese occupied it in 1255, beginning hostilities with the sacking of the Venetian neighbourhood and the destruction of the ships docked there. Over the centuries, the two republics signed several agreements concerning their zones of influence and action, to avoid hindering each other. Genova repubblica marinara: tanto potente da divenire “Superba” ... L’ennesima guerra appena conclusa contro Venezia, unita alle solite lotte interne, inaugurarono per Genova un periodo di decadenza a cui seguì il lento sgretolarsi dell’impero commerciale a vantaggio delle nascenti potenze turca e spagnola. From the 10th century, they built fleets of ships both for their own protection and to support extensive trade networks … Venezia Il corteo di Venezia Una regina fascinosa. Cosimo de' Medici and Alfonso V of Aragon entered the Italic League, together with Pope Nicholas, with Francesco Sforza of Milan and with Venice. Dalla repubblica marinara di Venezia a Wuhan passando per abusi, errori e superstizioni. Di Simone Cosimi. Included in the Papal States since 774, Ancona came under the influence of the Holy Roman Empire around 1000, but gradually gained independence to become fully independent with the coming of the communes in the 12th century. Some historians[who?] Geographic history of the Republic of Venice. Da dove nasce la quarantena? Nell'828 vengono trasportate da Alessandria le spoglie di S. Marco che, proclamato patrono della città, sarà l'omonimo della repubblica. Under the protection of the Norman William II, third Duke of Apulia, in October 1126 the administrators of Amalfi reached a profitable commercial agreement with the neighbouring Pisa, to collaborate in the protection of their common interests in the Tyrrhenian. 697-1797Cronology in subtitles. It ended in victory for the Venetians, who finally regained dominance over trade to the East. Geographic history of the Republic of Venice. It never attacked other maritime cities, but was always forced to defend itself. In 1298 the Genoese defeated the Venetian fleet at the Dalmatian island of Curzola. The maritime cartographer Grazioso Benincasa was born in Ancona, as was the navigator-archaeologist Cyriacus of Ancona, named by his fellow humanists "father of the antiquities", who made his contemporaries aware of the existence of the Parthenon, the Pyramids, the Sphinx and other famous ancient monuments believed destroyed. Venezia nel Trecento Il trecento e Venezia: la serenissima repubblica. To resist them, Pisa and Genoa joined forces to banish the fleet of Mujāhid al-‘ĀmirÄ« from the coasts of Sardinia, where it had settled temporarily between 1015 and 1016, threatening the survival of the Sardinian giudicati. Avventura in terraferma Potenza di mare, Venezia tentò verso la metà del ‘400 l’avventura in terraferma, spingendo le sue conquiste fino in Lombardia, in Emilia e lungo la riva orientale dell’Adriatico, dalla Dalmazia alla Grecia. Venice first agreed to an alliance with Pisa regarding their common interests in Syria and Palestine, but then counter-attacked, destroying the fortified monastery. During the time of their independence, all these cities had similar (though not identical) systems of government, in which the merchant class had considerable power. It bound itself to pay him a symbolic annual tribute, a move that allowed it to maintain its effective independence. Commercial competition among Venice, Ancona and Ragusa was very strong because all of them bordered the Adriatic Sea. The maritime republics became heavily involved in the Levantine Crusades of the tenth to thirteenth centuries. That war ended in favour of Roger II, who gained recognition of his rights over the territories of South Italy, but it was a severe blow for Amalfi, which lost both its fleet and its political autonomy.[12]. Veneziaconquista l'Istria e la Dalmazia. Storia della Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia. Once that was achieved, disputes soon broke out over control of the conquered territories. Pisa maintained its independence and control of the Tuscan coast until 1409, when it was annexed by Florence. It reached its peak during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to tax exemptions for affordable goods. In 1096 Amalfi revolted and reverted to an independent republic, but this was put down in 1101. consider this decision to have been an error on the part of Venice, which yielded supremacy of the Tyrrhenian Sea to rival Genoa and simultaneously lost the precious help of Pisa in the east. The Republic remained independent until 1797, when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic.

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