Tutte le informazioni sulla passerella alberi da vedere in Danimarca. The scriptural allusion is Ps 42:1. on which the soldiers diced for Christ's robes. This restoration involved new mosaics in the apse, and a tower campanile was also apparently erected. The fresco was restored in 1952, when it was found to be in poor condition and heavily retouched. It was formerly used as the relic treasury of the papal palace, and allegedly held such relics as a bit of bread from the Last Supper, St John the Baptist's coat, St Matthew's shoulder, St Bartholomew's chin, and the heads of SS Peter, Paul, Agnes and Euphemia. There's a high dado in what looks like red marble, and a sub-frieze below the entablature in green. The Medici heraldry is interestingly incorrect -the balls should be gules (red), not gilded (except the top one, azure with fleur-de-lys or). The pope might have borrowed the property for the day to hold the synod! The side walls of the entrance and altar ends each have a marble statue of a female allegorical figure of one of the Cardinal Virtues, standing in a round-headed niche in verde antico marble, over a black marble sarcophagus with yellow marble legs on which a pair of putti are disporting themselves. The side coffers feature the Instruments of the Passion in the centre, and Eucharistic symbols at each end. Pochi giorni fa mi sono recato nella Basilica di S. Giovanni in Laterano, anch’essa aperta … The entrance has two pairs of free-standing grey-veined white marble columns supporting a cornice on posts, the cornice in turn supporting the actual balcony. Coelorum regnum spreate hoc fonte renati, non recipit felix vita semel genitos. A photo is here. This nave-and-double-aisle layout is familiarly regarded as typical of an old basilica of this size, but actually what sort of liturgical arrangements had prompted the invention of the plan in the 4th century are a complete mystery. Two pairs occupy the outer corners, another two pairs are partly hidden by the columns of the propylaeum and two singletons are in between. A recent restoration was in 1967, when unfortunately 18th century decorations were removed. The developed tradition is that the table was from the home of St Pudens, with whom St Peter stayed as a guest. Between this and the next chapel is a monument of Cardinal Giulio Acquaviva, Duke of Atri. Starting at the left side of the entrance, the statues, reliefs and frescoes on each pier are listed as follows (with the attributes of the apostles concerned given in parenthesis): And on the right side, again starting from the entrance: The triumphal arch by Borromini fits rather awkwardly into his design of the central nave. Below this is a later inscription Diligite alterutrum ("Love one another"), from the First Letter of St John. On the posts and entablature are three angels and a crowd of putti. The popes after 1870 completely refused to accept the annexation of Rome by Italy in that year, a situation that pertained until 1929. In between these the entablature is broken for an arch, which shelters an organ (the choir has two) standing on a corbelled balcony with yellow marble baluster pins. The cloisters give a valuable view of the external fabric of the south side of the basilica. La Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, oltre ad essere la più importante è ricordata per gli innumerevoli interventi da parte di importanti artisti. Another mediaeval tradition is that it was here that Pope St Gregory the Great (590-604) first transcribed the Gregorian chant used in choral liturgical offices in western Europe from the early Middle Ages (in actual fact, the developed monophonic chant familiar still in some monasteries was a later development). This work entailed the loss of all the mosaics remaining from the 5th century. Behind the statue is a Gothic arched doorway, which actually leads into the scavi although never used nowadays. There is some debate about this campanile, with an alternative viewpoint being that the twin campanili now existing derive from a similar pair erected by Pope Sergius. These pilasters have panels in alabaster. The two outer pairs of columns in each arcade are all plain, but the inner pairs and some of the semi-columns are fantastically designed with some being intertwined ("snakes having sex"), some ribbed, some twisted and some spirally ribbed. This is a simple composition, with a tondo portrait in oils over an epigraph slab. These three sacristies are referred to as the Sagrestia Antica (or Vecchia) or the Sagrestia dei Beneficiati, the Sagrestia dei Canonici and the Sagrestia Nuova. Despite, the Chapter voted to make the reigning King of France an honorary canon in gratitude, and this conceit is still offered to the President of the Republic of France. A simple affair behind the second nave pier on this side, the aedicule has the alleged original epigraph at the bottom and a marble bas-relief in two panels within a pedimented frame at the top. There are five of these piers on each side, with a sixth attached to the counterfaçade. It is thought that the well-head originally belonged to the palace, where it was venerated as the "Well of the Samaritan Woman" in the early Middle Ages. The latter was originally the main private chapel of the mediaeval palace, used by the popes from the time of Constantine (perhaps) until the move to Avignon in 1313. After this work, the Chapel of St Venantius became the main place of worship for the basilica's parish. Pope Leo III has a square nimbus, showing that he was alive when it was made. It was constructed in 1598 by Luca Blasi from Perugia, and the fantastically ornate Baroque case in blue and gold was constructed by Giovanni Battista Montano to a design by Giacomo Della Porta. Over the entablature is an attic from which the vault springs. Above each aedicule is a rectangular (almost square) stucco relief panel, allegedly originally intended to be in bronze. On the pier beyond is a wall memorial to Cardinal Vincenzo Santucci 1861. He was part of the brilliant cultural ambience at Rome which was destroyed in the Sack of 1527. and Gregory the Great by Nebbia. The gigantic pilasters mentioned support extensions to each side of the entablature of the propylaeum. The dominating central dome having a large oculus and coffering containing rosettes, which is in squares getting smaller as the oculus is approached. The canopy of the baldacchino was in silver, supported by four columns of red jasper. 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Il nome completo è Papale arcibasilica maggiore cattedrale arcipretale del Santissimo Salvatore e dei Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano ed è attualmente retta da papa Francesco tramite il cardinale arciprete Angelo De Donatis. It has a reclining effigy. The strange thing here, however, was that there were no major saints' relics venerated in the basilica -the popes in the Middle Ages kept their enormous collection safe in the Sancta Sanctorum at the palace, including the heads of SS Peter and Paul now above the altar. Here, Christ is being depicted under his aspect of the Rising Sun (Malachi 4:2, Luke 1:78). In front of it is a stucco Pietà, a copy of one kept in the crypt of the Cappella Corsini (see below). The floor has a pietra dura inlay of the cardinal's coat-of-arms. The vineyards provided the setting for the basilica until the 19th century. The floor is in a matching Cosmatesque style. In the 17th century the roof was provided with a coffered ceiling, having a central oval quatrefoil coffer containing the title of the basilica. It was the original location of the famous Sedes stercoraria or "shitty chair", in which the pope sat during his ceremonial vesting. Over each side wall entablature is a large fresco, flanked by a pair of windows with segmental pediments. Note the very interesting detail that the nails are through Christ's wrists, not the palms of his hands as usually depicted in art. In 1780, the Chapel of St John the Baptist was remodelled by Giovanni Battista Ceccarelli. It was founded by Cardinal Scipione Lancellotti, who was buried here in 1598. The chapter house is also known as the Sala Clementina or the Sala dei Paramenti. The church was first simply known as the Basilica Constantiniana, but it seems to have been dedicated to Christ Our Saviour from the beginning. The central windows are wider, and are in the form of a serliana with two engaged rendered Composite columns supporting a triangular pediment with a broken cornice and flanking a recessed pair of free-standing marble columns supporting a shallowly curved archivolt with That Bird once again in a scallop tablet on the keystone. However, the first mention of the dedication dates from the mid 7th century in the reign of Pope Martin I (649-55). The conch mosaic divides into two sub-registers. Giacomo della Porta designed it in 1564 for Faustina Massimo as a funerary chapel for her family. By the entrance to the Sagrestia dei Beneficiati are two salvaged mediaeval mosaic epigraphs. From it, by tradition a newly elected Pope would give his blessing on the day that he first took possession of the cathedral. Then he replaced them with ten square piers on either side, with an eleventh on the steps leading up to the transept. The monument to Cardinal António Martins de Chaves 1447 is the last thing in this aisle. These have been here since 1370, when they were moved from the Sancta Sanctorum in the palace. This has four granite Corinthian columns placed on inward pointing diagonals, which support a Borrominiesque entablature lacking a frieze and with two bowed sections flanking a coved one. Then comes the portico entrance. Iste, vicem Petri postquam suscepit, abegit lustrali spatio saecula morte sui. The editor of the critical edition of the saint's works unilaterally corrected the corrupt Laterani to Laterano, which is how the remark is usually copied and which gives the false impression that in Laterano was already a locality. The altar has an aedicule with a pair of Ionic columns in pavonazzetto marble supporting the separated ends of a triangular pediment that has its central section missing. The pediment frieze shows scrollwork with putti, also gilded. The conquests of Islam in the latter 7th century meant that many monastics of Eastern rite came to Rome as refugees. The work was only finished in 1650. The altarpiece is a mosaic copy of a portrait of St Andrew Corsini based on an original by Guido Reni; the cartoon was by Agostino Masucci, and the mosaic work was done by Fabio Cristofari. Si tratta, inoltre, della prima delle quattro basiliche papali maggiori nonché la più antica e importante basilica d’Occidente. There follows the entrance lobby to the palace, designed by Fontana but altered by Borromini. Inizialmente, Papa Silvestro I, nel IV secolo, la dedicò al Santissimo Salvatore. Type: ), to the left Cardinal Angelico de Grimoard. In between the piers are five arches, each with a molded archivolt springing from Doric imposts. The next hundred and fifty years seem to have been uneventful. They had been brought from Sant'Adriano, the ancient Curia Iulia or Senate House in the Forum Romanum, and because the doors were slightly too small for the molded marble doorcase Borromini provided a bronze fillet bearing stars from the heraldry of Pope Alexander who was a Chigi. His memorial has a pair of black marble Doric columns flanking a large slightly elliptical tondo, which contains an interesting (although damaged) portrait fresco of the cardinal in his scarlet robes. From left to right, the shields are of Popes Urban V, Pius IX and Gregory XI. The organs of the basilica have their own Italian Wikipedia page here. More useful are a series of sketches of the outside of the basilica and palace made by Maarten van Heemskerck in about 1535. A close-up photo is here. The other four sections have representational carvings in natural colour, each flanked by two narrow coffers containing angels: St John the Evangelist; Christ in Majesty; St John the Baptist and The Assumption of Our Lady. There follows a second little chapel, dedicated to St John the Evangelist. Much of the mosaic inlay has been lost, and this is probably because the Vassalletti got the mix of the fixative badly wrong. The main façade, in travertine limestone, is the work of Alessandro Galilei. There is a little chapel off the far right side of the transept, which is called the Ceci Chapel after the sponsoring family. Note that the tracery of the arch on the left has a quatrefoil, but the right hand one has an eight-petalled rose. Another large house around a trapezoidal courtyard was located under the basilica's apse in 1884 during restoration work. Above the entrance to the apse is the inscription NON EST IN TOTO SANCTIOR ORBE LOCUS ("there is no holier place in all the world"). Cloisters: 9:00 to 18:00 (there is an entry charge of two euros). The road network had been mostly abandoned, and the main access to the complex was a driveway from the Via Labicana on the line of the lower end of the present Via Merulana. Those by the entrance are Justice by Vincenzo Grassi and Prudence by Angelo Bezzi. Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846) set up the Museo Profano Lateranense here in 1844, the collection comprising pagan Roman statues, relief sculptures and mosaics. The transept was substantially remodelled (but not completely rebuilt) by Giacomo della Porta, who was commissioned by Pope Clement VIII in 1592 to do the work in celebration of the Jubilee of 1600. They first emerge into history in this basilica, during the reign of Pope Nicholas IV (1288-92), and formed a screen between the papal altar and the apse. It now stands on two circular steps, which are modern. As might be expected, the interior was lavishly decorated. He also added spires to the two campanili, later replaced. However, it is the surviving area of the ancient Campus Lateranensis which was the mustering-ground of both the basilica and the palace throughout mediaeval times. From 1772 it was kept in the sacristy. A pair of shallow intermediary pilasters break the curved wall into four sections having panels in Sicilian jasper, having molded black marble frames within purple-veined marble surrounds below red marble sub-friezes. This action by the emperor gave the name to the locality -however, the actual geographic term in Laterano is only unambiguously found in the sources from the 11th century. A subsidiary room is the so-called Sala Pio IX, which is a 19th century hall opening off the cloisters. Pope Pius IV (1559-65) embellished the baptistery, and also commissioned the extant nave ceiling of the basilica in 1562. Viaggiamo Fontana also laid out the present Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano. Before the 20th century the well-head stood at ground level, and was flanked by a pair of ancient Doric columns supporting a fragment of entablature from which hung the bucket-rope. The spandrels of the triumphal arches have frescoes of Doctors of the Church. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Confessions are heard: 7:00 to 12:00, and 15:30 to 18:30. If you look at the visible sides flanking the door, you will notice that each has the outline of a blocked door with an arc lintel, over which is the outline of a blocked round-headed window. The next day, he met St Francis at the Lateran and recognized in him the saint sent by God to restore the church - not St John Lateran in particular, but the Church in general. Beware of so-called giallo antico of a more greenish hue and grey veins, as this is probably from Siena. Those reborn by this fountain hope for the Kingdom of Heaven; the happy life does not receive those brought forth only once. Affixed to the wall just to the left of the portal are the remnants of a ribbed Corinthian pilaster in white marble, supporting the end of the entablature. The present mosaic, executed in 1878, is a fair copy of the destroyed late 13th century one, but not a stylistic replica which means that historical analysis of the work is mostly surmise. In the tympanum of the pediment is a mosaic fragment by Jacopo Torriti, about 1291, which is the only survival of the famous mosaic decoration of the mediaeval portico that used to stand here. He also added two more piers to the counterfaçade, engaged with the wall there and having diagonal inner faces (a very Borrominian detail). The cloisters form a perfect square, 36 metres on each side and with four interconnected ambulatories or covered walkways so that you can walk all the way round. The geometric forms used in this floor are spectacularly intricate, but the colouring is surprisingly pallid and is dominated by light grey hues. The first stone was laid by Pope Clement XII in 1732, and the completed structure was blessed on 8 December, 1735. It originally had an enormous portal divided into three rectangles by a pair of monumental porphyry Composite columns. The side altar to the right, dedicated to the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady, is claimed to be the oldest Cosmatesque work in Rome. and Jerome (?) There is an entablature from which the ceiling vault springs, which is supported by Ionic pilasters and is broken by an arch on each side which intrudes into the vault. This has been seriously disputed in recent analysis, and the latest consensus is that the present octagonal structure is Constantinian and that Pope Sixtus only altered the interior arrangements as part of a major refit that also involved the side-chapels added by his successors. He added: "The hideous blocks of modern houses on the left are an eyesore, and spoil the view". Cornacchini also allegedly executed the ones to each side, but the ones over the entrance seem not to be by him. As regards the ancient verde antico columns. On 23 July 1993, a Mafia car bomb damaged the façades of the palace and basilica in Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano. In 1910, under Pope St Pius X, the Lapidario Ebraico was established here also which is a unique collection of one hundred and thirty seven Roman Jewish epitaphs from ancient cemeteries in Rome (mostly from catacombs on the Via Portuense). 32, Zc. The aedicule by Borromini is possibly the best of his set under the oval windows, and features a ball-bounce cornice below the window, which is supported by four caryatids having fruit-baskets on their heads. Top: St Andrew by Ricci, St Peter by Cesari and SS Ambrose (?) The richly gilt coffered 16th century ceiling includes carved figures from the previous 15th century one. During the synod the basilica was, ominously, severely damaged by an earthquake in the year 896. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. The high altar was executed by Cinto de Salvati, and completed in 1293 by Giovanni dell'Aventino and Giovanni di Cosma with his son Lucantonio. The Beneficiati were the priests attached to the basilica who were not canons, but received a salary. One interpretation then made was that this rotunda was a pre-existing baptistery taken over by Constantine for his basilica. It is recorded that when the sarcophagus was broken open, the fully-vested corpse was seen intact before it crumbled away in the fresh air. The baptistery with its four subsidiary chapels is a stand-alone edifice on a different axis, at an angle to the major axis of the church to the north-west of the apse. Finally, the church was destroyed by fire again in 1360. Below the crucifix and in between the column plinths is a shrine to the Madonna delle Grazie, showing the Mother and Child in between SS Lawrence and Sebastian. This is flanked by a pair of angel caryatid pilasters, and topped by a coat-of-arms flanked by the mountains-and-star device again. There is uncertainty and argument as how much of the original 4th century brickwork remains in the fabric, with some thinking that there is very little. Guide viaggio turistiche in Italia e all’Estero: Roma, Genova, Milano, Torino, Trieste, Verona, Venezia, Savona, Firenze, Pisa, Siena, Napoli, Cagliari, Bari, Lecce, Catania, Palermo, Parigi, Londra, Dublino, Budapest, Vienna, Barcellona, Monaco, Nizza, Berlino. The central arch's balustrade is slightly higher, and has two panels bearing the coat-of-arms of Pope Sixtus The entablature has an inscription Sixtus p[a]p[a] V ad benedictiones extruxit MDLXXXVI ("Pope Sixtus V built it for blessings, 1586"). Hinc salvatoris celestia regna datoris nomine sanxerunt cum cuncta peracta fuerunt. Also, being rather high up they are not easy to see (serious visitors bring binoculars). Biografia e opere principali dell\\'artista: San Carlo alle 4 fontane, San Carlino, Sant\\'Ivo alla Sapienza, San Giovanni in Laterano,. Each sector has a round window in a lunette, then more bees with a Sun in Splendour symbol. The Vespignanis, father and son, who were responsible, made a commendable effort in matching the structure both to the Loggia next door and to the palace façade. Sic transit gloria praeteritorum, cum tranquillior mundus erat. Diego Angeli 1902 had this to say: Disgraziamente in tali lavori il mosaico primitivo fu talmente restaurato nel transporto, che prese tutto il suo carattere. Previous analyses had noted the archaeological finding that the octagonal walls stand on a circular foundation, and interpreted this to mean that the original building was circular. It was a private chapel for the Pope. 510, Part. He ordered the Sistine portico to be converted into two chapels, with altars occupying the apses at each end. St John Lateran is also the senior of the so-called Papal Basilicas which include, a well as these four, San Lorenzo fuori le Mura (also a former "patriarchal basilica") and two churches in Assisi the altars of which are reserved for celebrations of Mass by the Pope (except by special dispensation, which is actually routinely given). To the right in the portico is a marble tablet bearing a copy of the bull of 1372 by Pope Gregory XI which proclaimed the basilica as being the first in dignity of all churches. There are two. The usual familiar name in English is invariably "St John Lateran", and in Italian San Giovanni in Laterano. Pope Innocent X gave the task of restoring the fabric to Francesco Borromini, in preparation for the Holy Year of 1650. Emperor Constantine had installed a porphyry font with seven silver deer pouring water out of their mouths, also an image of the Lamb of God in gold and images of Christ and St John the Baptist in silver. He also proposed the demolition of the palace to provide materials for the future repair of the basilica -it is obvious that the vast old complex was now derelict. Neri is here because he was an uncle of the pope. However, the interior has always been open to the elements through the portal voids above these. An elliptical relief coat-of-arms is in the break, and above is a smaller segmental pediment. Bottom: The Consecration of the Basilica by Ricci, and The Building of the Basilica by Nogari. Pope Adrian IV, who succeeded Pope Anastasius, oversaw the restoration of the Aqua Claudia aqueduct water supply to the baptistery (which had been relying on well and cistern water ever since the ancient aqueducts collapsed). Infine, papa Lucio II, nel XII secolo, incluse anche San Giovanni Evangelista. The simple entrance has a molded doorcase, flanked by pilasters strips supporting strap corbels which in turn support a triangular pediment. These were designed in 1650 by Alessandro Algardi, and executed by his school led by Antonio Raggi and Giovanni Antonio De Rossi. These are adoring a statue of Christ, under its own little crowning aedicule with a segmental pediment having a broken cornice. This has a spectacular spire with gilded crockets and with gilt vine-scroll decoration, and is accompanied by four gables each with an octofoil aperture containing a bust of one of the Evangelists. Built: The artist was Lazzaro Baldi. Beyond this chapel is a memorial to Cardinal Girolamo Casanate 1700 by Pierre Le Gros the Younger. Whatever, the depiction is not merely iconic, but an allusion to the tradition that the face of Christ appeared miraculously in the apse soon after the original consecration of the basilica. Argomenti trattati. It was merely a case of removing the rubble, taking care not to undermine the church's foundations. However the work went on for so long that the date was missed, and the project was only completed in 1660. To the right of the altar is an original wooden credence table with backing panels (note the carved column), and over it a pretty little 18th century (?) Among the more interesting items are a Rosa d'Oro or "Golden Rose", a papal sign of honour bestowed on distinguished persons or churches and associated with Laetare Sunday. Borromini salvaged the recumbent effigy and installed it on a sarcophagus of his design, which has incurved sides. Cardinal Lucio Sassi 1604. Unfortunately the outdoors conditions have caused many of the lead insert letters of the epitaph to fall out. Be aware that several details as shown are not now considered correct. Pope Sixtus was certainly responsible for the present interior arrangement, where eight porphyry columns support an open entablature on which the doctrine of baptism as spiritual rebirth, and the sacrament's connection to the sacrifice of Christ, is set out in eight inscriptions. A pair of monumental ancient pink granite Composite columns, with gilded highlights on the capitals, support an archivolt as wide as the nave by means of a pair of posts which are treated as extrusions of a non-existent entablature having an architrave, nave and a cornice of several moldings. A second, higher pair of posts embellished with festoons flanks the archivolt, and support a horizontal cornice on which is a Symbol of the Trinity (that is, a triangle) in a gilded glory with floral swags. Above this in turn is an oval fresco tondo in a lush floral wreath. 2, Cat.A/2, Cl. Let not the number or type of his sins frighten the one born in this flow, he will be saved".). The rebuilt apse has four registers of decoration before the conch, the topmost of which is part of the conch mosaic. This was regarded at the time as God's vengeance on some enormous sin and, since the popes of the period indulged in all the most obvious sins without harm, the rumour spread that he had been a black magician and a worshipper of Satan. The Oratory of St Venantius was founded next to the baptistery by Pope John IV (640-642). Here is an epigraph commemorating Marie Anne de la Trémoille, nicknamed La Princesse des Ursins after she married into the Orsini family. The Lateran is a well-defined locality in an area of 19th century suburban development of little more interest than the vineyards that it replaced. Meanwhile, the Lateran Palace remained underused. By that time the pope was dead, and had been succeeded by Alexander VII. Unfortunately it has solid wooden doors, and if these are locked you cannot see anything. The citizens and pilgrims were terrorized, and the population fell below 20 000 for the first time since the city grew to greatness. Their names are given as labels. Between the windows below are mosaics of the remaining nine Apostles, again standing on flowery grass and accompanied by stylized trees, with the two Franciscan mosaicists at their feet. Each of the four side walls of the ends of the transept has three frescoes high up, separated by two windows with segmental pediments. The monument is very similar in style to that opposite, except that the sarcophagus is replaced by a frontal in red jasper and the statue is standing and is in white marble. The money goes to pious purposes -not to the basilica cleaners' wine fund, even if they would seriously deserve it. Nowadays it is mostly under grass, with a few trees and bushes. The Loggia was built for the great Jubilee which the pope declared for the year 1300. For more on this building, see Sante Rufina e Seconda a Porcareccina. Pope John XII (955-964) built an oratory dedicated to St Thomas the Apostle, against the basilica's frontage next to the beginnings of the left hand side aisles. By a virginal reproduction Mother Church has new-borns, who are conceived by the spirit of God and born by means of the river. The consensus of scholars seems to be that the norm of the rite in the 2nd century was total immersion, although affusion or the pouring of water over one only partly immersed was also used.