The government owns significant parts of these companies. The mountain’s densely forested slopes are part of the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, which has significant portions in Guinea. The Fouta Djallon is the source of the three major rivers of the region. The main bauxite company is Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinea (CBG). 80 percent of the people in Guinea are employed in agriculture. Fouta Djallon is a highland region in the center of Guinea. While they see economically prosperous countries in the media, their inability to find work is frustrating. This loss forced the government to seek finances from the Central Bank. World Africa There are also deposits of gold, diamonds, and other metals. Rail and domestic air services are insufficient and offer inadequate services. Badiar National Park, which is administered jointly with Niokolo-Koba National Park in southeastern Senegal, contains savanna and forest. 3. Some Guineans claim that the word arose from an early episode in the European-African encounter. Volcanos in Papua New Guinea At 14 volcanos in Papua New Guinea there have been a total of 33 siginificant eruptions over the past 2000 years. Monkeys, chimpanzees, and some rare bird species can be found in the southern portion of the Forest Region, near the Liberian border. As the ITCZ shifts southward in November, the hot, dry wind known as the harmattan blows from the northeast off the Sahara. Of the remainder, 30 percent are Mandinka and 20 percent the Soussou. Guinea has a population of 12.4 million.The capital and largest city, Conakry, is Guinea’s economic and cultural hub. This slowed the pace of reforms. Nonetheless, the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture. a republic in West Africa, on the Atlantic: established as the colony of French Guinea in 1890 and became an independent republic in 1958. The Fouta Djallon also gives rise to numerous smaller rivers, including the Fatala, Konkouré, and Kolenté, which flow westward across the coastal plain to enter the Atlantic Ocean. The rocks of this region are of the same composition as those of Upper Guinea. More than 5,000 square miles (13,000 square km) of the highlands’ total extent of 30,000 square miles (78,000 square km) lie above 3,000 feet (900 metres). Other bauxite companies are the Compagnie des Bauxites de Kindia, Dian Dian, and Alumina Compagnie de Guinee. The national capital, Conakry, lies on Tombo (Tumbo) Island and spreads up the Camayenne (Kaloum) Peninsula; it is the country’s main port. Papua New Guinea is surrounded by coral reefs which are under close watch to preserve them. Until independence in 1958 the country was known as French Guinea, a French colony and part of French West Africa. In Upper Guinea the savanna grassland supports several species of tall grasses that reach heights of 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3 metres) during the rainy season. Numele țării este de origine berberă și se poate traduce drept 'țara negrilor'. 900 personnel are in the navy. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. While the levels of HIV/AIDS are much lower than other African countries, Guinea is still considered to be facing an epidemic. A new railway and deep-water port are expected to be built at Kalia and Simandou (south) due to planned iron mining. A small amount of river traffic also exists on the Niger and Milo rivers. At low elevations, temperatures resemble those of the coastal areas. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Composed of granite, gneiss, schist (crystalline rock), and quartzite, the region has an average elevation of about 1,000 feet (300 metres). Guinea’s land area is approximately the size of the U.K. Its land border is 3,400 km and the coastline is 300 km. In 2002, due to the government’s failure to meet criteria, the IMF suspended Guinea’s Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Speak Up Africa And IFPMA Start Their Search For Winners Of The Africa Young Innovators For Health Award. Guinea consists of four geographic regions: Lower Guinea, the Fouta Djallon, Upper Guinea, and the Forest Region, or Guinea Highlands. The agreement stated Camara would continue his medical recovery outside Guinea and the military would not intervene in the elections. The Niger River and several tributaries, including the Tinkisso, Milo, and Sankarani, rise in the highlands and flow in a general northeasterly direction across Upper Guinea to Mali. Offended by one-sided coverage of wars, disasters and disease, the founders of created a website that provides a balanced view of Africa – current events, business, arts & culture, travel, fashion, sports, information, development, and more. It is bordered by Ivory Coast, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. Immediately inland the gently rolling coastal plain rises to the east, being broken by rocky spurs of the Fouta Djallon highlands in the north at Cape Verga and in the south at the Camayenne Peninsula. The indigenous name in the Pular language is Fuuta-Jaloo. Its soldiers have been accused of mutilation, rape, and murder in these attacks. 80 percent of Guinea’s foreign exchanges result from bauxite mining in the northwest. When Camara went to Morocco for medical treatment, his vice-president, Sekouba Konate, returned from Lebanon to run the country. Cloud State University, Minnesota. The Bafing and Bakoye rivers, headwaters of the Sénégal River, flow northward into Mali before uniting to form the main river. Religion: Muslim majority and … The mountain’s densely forested slopes are part of the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, which has significant portions in Guinea. The highest point in the highlands, Mount Tamgué, rises to 5,046 feet (1,538 metres) near the town of Mali in the north. He entered into combat with the colonial army, defeating them on several occasions, including a notable victory on 2 April 1882, at Woyowayanko in the face of French heavy artillery. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Early in the country’s history, Guinea was a major exporter of coffee, peanuts, palm oil, pineapples, and bananas. In 1996, the president promised additional reforms and appointed a new government. New Agriculture and fishing are potential growth areas. These elections were postponed due to allegations of fraud. It then was ruled successively by Sékou Touré (1958–84) and Lansana Conté (1984–2008), the latter of whom claimed power through a military coup. The country continued reforms in 1996 and 1998 under IMF agreements. The army is the largest branch with 15,000 personnel and is responsible for securing the borders. Lower Guinea includes the coast and coastal plain. CBG is 49 percent government owned and the remainder is owned by Alcan and Alcoa. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Experiments with … Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, St. Mount Nimba is the highest point at 1,750 m. Guinea’s large natural resources include 25 percent of the bauxite reserves known in the world. Guinea’s poor infrastructure and corruption hinder development. New Zealanders travelling or living in Guinea should have a comprehensive travel insurance policy in place that includes provision for medical evacuation by air. Mount Nimba, the highest peak of the Nimba Range, which extends along the Guinea–Côte d'Ivoire–Liberia border in western Africa. A few hippopotamuses and manatees inhabit the rivers of both Lower and Upper Guinea. Crocodiles and several varieties of fish are found in most rivers. Ahmed Sekou Toure was the president when the country gained independence. Many of the dry woodlands of the region are protected in Haut Niger National Park, located in the centre of the country. Moussa Dadis Camara took control on December 23, 2008 as the leader of a junta. Despite these problems, foreign investors still come to Guinea. During the 1990s Guinea accommodated several hundred thousand war refugees from neighbouring Liberia and Sierra Leone, and conflicts between those countries and Guinea have continued to flare up over the refugee population. Travel tips. Of the Muslims, most are Sufi or Sunni. These are subdivided into 33 prefectures. ... New species of snake which can stab sideways discovered in west Africa. On the coast a period of six months of dry weather is followed by six months of rain. Water and electrical utilities were operated privately until 2001. Transform Africa Summit 2020 edition has been officially announced in Conakry the capital of Guinea. Bordered in north by Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and by Côte d'Ivoire to the east and southeast, by Liberia and Sierra Leone to the south. Hydroelectric power has potential as well. unity-based methods. After the fall of the major West African empires, various kingdoms existed in what is now Guinea: Futa Jallon Fulani Muslims migrated to Fouta Jallon in Central Guinea and established an Islamic state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers. Outside Conakry, foreign investment is given more favorable terms. Large, multi-national corporations like Global Alumina, Alcoa, and Alcan have invested in mining and refining operations. Between 30 and 50 miles (48 and 80 km) wide, the plain is wider in the south than the north. Inflation is still a problem, reaching 30 percent in 2005. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. " The modern state of Guinea did not come into existence until 1958, but the history of Guinea stretches back well before European colonization. The country’s rulers have been autocratic and Guinea is one of the world’s poorest countries. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Guinea is the richest country in terms of … Uranium may also be present but its quantities are unknown. Mali, Senegal, and Guinea-Bissau share the northern border and Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Côte d’Ivoire are to the south. The flat relief is broken by rounded granite hills and outliers of the Fouta Djallon. Guinea - Guinea - Government and society: For more than 25 years under Pres. The main groups are the Fula, Mandinka, and Susu. AREDOR is a diamond-mining venture partly owned by the Guinean government. The origin of the name is from the Pular word for the region plus the name of the original inhabitants, the Yalunka or Jalonke. This official launch made on Friday last week was made together by Smart Africa with the Republic of Guinea at Noom Hotel. Guinea was the first French colony in Africa to opt out of French rule, and has paid the price economically. Content is produced in collaboration between’s editorial team and our partners — including nongovernmental organizations, private sector stakeholders, agencies and institutions. Most roads are in poor repair. Numerous offshore islands are remnants of former hills. Fulani people are mainly pastoralists making them the largest nomadic pastoralist community in the world. Its base rocks of granite and gneiss (coarse-grained rock containing bands of minerals) are covered with laterite (red soil with a high content of iron oxides and aluminum hydroxide) and sandstone gravel. DRC Energy & Infrastructure Investment Summit 2021, Manta Rays and Whale Sharks are Now Protected by Law in Mozambique, Ghana’s ‘Mushroom Queen’ Grows Her Fungi in Sawdust, ‘It Speaks to an Ancient History’: Why South Africa Has the World’s Most Exciting Dance Music, MarvinKann Releases “Forever” Video Featuring Lib Whezzy & KIING, Not So Fast… This Is What You Should Know About Internet Speed Tests. There are four regions with distinct characteristics. The Guinean sector was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981 and is home to a unique and diverse array of flora and fauna. After the fall of the major West African empires, various kingdoms existed in what is now Guinea: Fulani Muslims migrated to Fouta Jallon in Central Guinea and established an Islamic state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers. Guinea is located in Western Africa, with the west coast facing the North Atlantic Ocean. Mount Nimba (5,748 feet [1,752 metres]), the highest mountain in the region, is located at the borders of Guinea, Liberia, and Côte d’Ivoire. If you are interested in telling stories in an impactful way to shine a spotlight on a particular issue, please email us. In addition to bauxite, Guinea also has large diamond, iron, and gold deposits. After the first rounds, Cellou Dalein Diallo and Alpha Conde were the winners and set to move into the second round. In the Forest Region at Macenta there may be some 100 or more inches (2,540 mm) of rain annually. Other groups include the Kpelle, Kissi, Toma, and Zialo. There are 24 ethnic groups in Guinea. There is no discrimination between foreign and domestic investment. Poisonous snakes include mambas, vipers, and cobras, and there are pythons and a variety of harmless snakes. Guinea's many rivers supply water to much of West Africa. The Forest Region generally drains to the southwest through Sierra Leone and Liberia. There are 10,000 non-Africans. Only the months of December, January, and February are relatively dry, with possible rainfall of only 1 inch (25 mm).